Anglia Ruskin University Harvard Reference System Dissertation

Harvard (author-date) referencing system


This tutorial is based upon the referencing guidelines produced by the British Standards Institute. These are available as the following British Standards:

BS 5605:1990. Recommendations for citing and referencing published material. 2nd edition. British Standards Institute. (Arts and Social Science Library Z694 BRI)

BS 1629:1989. Recommendations for references to published materials. British Standards Institute. (Arts and Social Science Library Z694 BRI)

There are some document types, for example electronic sources, not included in the British Standards. Guidance for these is taken from the referencing guide produced by Anglia Ruskin University. Click on the link below to view.

HOLLAND, Matt. July 2005. Citing References. [online]. Available from: [Accessed 22 July 2005].

Anglia Ruskin University referencing guidelines.

Under the Harvard system, sources are cited in short, parenthetical (in brackets) notes within the text, rather than in footnotes or endnotes. Only the name of the author, the date of the source and, if necessary, the page numbers are included. The rest of the information required by a reader to find and consult the source, such as the title, location and publication details, is contained in a list of references at the end of the work.

The Harvard System is attractive to both authors and readers of academic texts. It is economical to write, as the same material is not duplicated in a footnote and the bibliography. Many find that when reading books or articles referenced using the Harvard system the flow of their reading is less interrupted, as their attention is not constantly diverted from the text to footnotes or endnotes. Also, new students and the more general reader often find works written using the Harvard system more accessible, as pages dominated by large numbers of academic footnotes can be intimidating.

However, readers are forced to turn to the list of references at the end of the work to find the full reference, rather than to the foot of the page. In review articles or other works where there are a large number of references, particularly to articles from journals or chapters from multi-authored works, this can be time consuming.

Harvard is the most common referencesystem at SLU. Here you will find examples of how to write references according to the Harvard system.

The Harvard  referencesystem is characterized by in-text citations that refer to a particular work by naming the source's last name and year of publication in parantheses (name, year). The concept is that readers should be able to easily locate the complete reference to the work cited in your reference list.

Reference list

The reference list should include enough information so that anyone reading your paper will be able to easily trace the sources used in your text. It should be in alphabetical order. The type of information in each complete reference depends on the source being cited.

Here you will find a number of examples for writing references for different resources. The examples are based on University of Borås "Guide to the Harvard system" but are altered to reflect the type of material used by SLU students and researchers.

For an introduction to the Harvard system in English see Anglia Ruskin University guide.

There are many ways to write a reference. The most important thing is to be consistent. If you are unsure which rules that apply at your institution, ask your instructor or advisor.



Blog posts

References for blog posts contain the following information:

  • Author
  • Year
  • Post title
  • Blog's name - in italics
  • [Blog]
  • Date (when post was published)
  • URL – blog's address
  • [Date] you visited the site


Olsson, A. (2011). Hög avkastning är lika med bra djurvälfärd, eller hur? Forskarbloggen. [Blog]. April 18. Available at: [2012-05-15].


References for books contain the following information:

  • Author / publisher
  • Year of publication
  • Title - in italics
  • Edition (if book has been published in several editions)
  • Publisher location
  • Publisher


McDowell, L.R. (2000). Vitamins in animal and human nutrition. 2. ed. Ames: Iowa State University Press.

E-books - examples:

Usually reference for print and e-books are identical, but if you use an electronic version there are a few other pieces of information that should be included:

  • The book's location - Available at: should be written after the publisher's name. If you found the book in a database you should write the database's name here, for example Ebrary. If you found the book online write the URL.
  • The date you read the book - [Date] should come at the end of the reference.

McDowell, L.R. (2000). Vitamins in animal and human nutrition. 2. ed. Ames: Iowa State University Press. Available at: Ebrary [2012-05-01].

Morey, D. (2010). Dogs: domestication and the development of a social bond. New York: Cambridge University Press. Available at: [2012-05-02].

Two or more authors - example:

Mellor, D., Patterson-Kane, E. & Stafford, K. (2009). The science of animal welfare. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Editor/editors - example:

A book with one editor. If a book consists of contributions from several authors it's called an anthology. Often, authors write a chapter in a book that is then combined by one or more editors. If you have only used a single chapter in a book, you should refer to that chapter by using the reference for a chapter in a book. Otherwise, you can refer to the entire book by citing the editor and placing an "ed." for editor.

Dwyer, C. (ed.) (2008). The welfare of sheep. Dordrecht: Springer.

Organization or authority - example:

Gentekniknämnden (1997). Konsumenterna och gentekniken. Solna: Gentekniknämnden.

Chapter in a book

It's common that books consists of contributions from several authors and perhaps you have only used a specific chapter in your work. In this case, you should only refer to the chapter you used and not the whole book. You do this by using "in" to denote that the chapter is a part of a larger work.

  • Chapter's author
  • Book's year of publication
  • Chapter title followed by "in"
  • Book's editors
  • Book title - in italics
  • Edition (if the book has been published in several editions)
  • Publisher' location
  • Publisher
  • Page numbers


Lindberg, A. (2003). Riskvärdering och riskkommunikation. In: Ekdahl, K. & Giesecke, J. (eds) Smittskyddsboken. Lund: Studentlitteratur, pp. 99-103.

Conference proceedings

Conference proceedings are a compilation of lectures presented at a conference. Conference proceedings often have an editor and should therefore be cited like an anthology with an editor. In addition, the reference could contain the following:

  • Conference location
  • Date the conference convened
  • Available at: where you can read the proceedings if online, i.e. (URL)

If you only used a specific lecture or contribution, you should reference that particular presentation as if it were a chapter in a book, see chapter in books.


Dahlgaard, Su Mi Park & Dahlgaard, Jens J. (eds) (2001). Building people and organisational excellence. Proceedings of the 4th International QMOD Conference, Linköpings universitet 12-14 September, 2001, Sweden.

Data citation

Data citation means to refer to research data in the same way as, for example, bibliographic references to journal articles, reports and other publications. In the directory entries from SND there is always a citation of datasets that you can copy and use. DataCite and CrossRef otherwise have developed a DOI Citation Formatter where you can choose the style of the citation . A citation to the data should include sufficient information so that the correct version of the data can be found.

The citation is recommended to include :

  • Primary investigator/institution
  • Title
  • Year
  • Version
  • Data Archive / intermediary
  • DOI


Palm, Lennart, 2013. Agricultural statistics on parish level, 1570. Available at:


References for dissertations contain the following information:

  • Author
  • Year
  • Title - in italics
  • Diss (dissertation)/lic.-avh. (master's thesis)
  • University where dissertation is submitted
  • Publisher location (if no other publisher location is mentioned, it is the location of the university)
  • Publisher (if no other publisher is mentioned it is the university where the dissertation was submitted)


Bröjer, C. (2012). Pathobiology of avian influenza in wild bird species. Diss. Uppsala: Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.

Limberg, L. (1998). Att söka information för att lära: en studie av samspel mellan informationssökning och lärande. Diss. Göteborgs universitet. Borås: Valfrid.

Internet forum

References for forums contain the following information:

  • Author
  • Year
  • Post title
  • Forum's name - in italics
  • [Forum]
  • Date of post publication
  • URL
  • [Date] when you visited the site


Thompson, M. (2010). 78% have experienced a vendor audit in the last year. The ITAM review forum. [Forum]. December 2. Available at: [2011-06-29].

Journal article

References to journal articles are written as follows:

  • Article's author
  • Publication year
  • Title
  • Journals' title - in italics
  • Volume and if possible number in parentheses
  • Page numbers


Hawes, D.K. (1993). Marketing tourism destinations: a strategic approach. Journal of travel research, vol. 31, pp. 74-75.

If you cite an article available online, add a DOI number or URL. DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a unique number that creates a persistent link to the article. Use the format doi:0000000/000000000000 or If the article lacks a DOI number, write the web adress (URL) and the date when you visited the site.

Online article - example:

Mead, P.S., Slutsker, L., Dietz, V., McCaig, L.F., Bresee, J.S., Shapiro, C., Griffin, P.M. & Tauxe, R.V. (1999). Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerging infectious diseases, vol. 5 (5), pp. 607-625. DOI: 10.3201/eid0505.990502

Bayindir, M., Bolger, F. & Say, B. (2017). An investigation of the role of some person and situation variables in multiple cue probability learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol. 70 (1), pp. 36-52. DOI:

Aydinalp, C. & Cresser, M. (2003). The background levels of heavy metals in vertisols under mediterreanean type of climate in the region of Turkey. Journal of Central European Agriculture, vol. 4 (4), pp. 289-296. Available at: [2016-11-01]


All laws and regulations are contained in the Swedish Code of Statutes (SFS). They are arranged chronologically according to their SFS number, which consists of the year and a serial number, e.g. 1944:219. There are other collections of laws and regulations that apply to certain government authorities, for example the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's code of statutes (NFS) or the Code of Regulations of the Swedish Board of Agriculture (SJVFS).


SFS 1981:533. Lag om fiskevårdsområden. Stockholm: Näringsdepartementet

SFS 2013:1059. Förordning om kontroll av ekologisk produktion. Stockholm: Näringsdepartementet

SJVFS 2004:32. Utfärdande av pass för sällskapsdjur. Jönköping: Statens jordbruksverk


References for maps contain the following information:

  • Source, e.g. institution
  • Publication year
  • Title - in italics
  • [Cartographic material]
  • Edition (if more than one edition exists)
  • Scale
  • Publisher's location
  • Publisher
  • Series


Sveriges geologiska undersökning (2004). Sveriges berggrund från urtid till nutid. [Cartographic material]  1:1 500 000 Uppsala: Sveriges geologiska undersökning (SGU).

Lantmäteriverket (2004). Lantmäteriets terrängkarta. 25N SV, Haparanda SV  : traktens karta med hus, småvägar och stigar. [Cartographic material]  5. ed. 1:50000. Gävle : Lantmäteriet.

Digital map-example:

If you have used a digital map, the reference will look essentially the same, just add the following:

  • Where you found the map - Available at: - and the map's URL
  • [Date] when you found the map

Lantmäteriverket (2000). Gröna kartan : topografiska kartan skala 1:50 000. 25N SV, Haparanda SV. [Cartographic material]  4. ed. 1:50000. Gävle: LMV. Avaliable at: map's URL [2011-06-29]

Read more about writing references and copyright for digital maps in these recommendations (in Swedish).

Multivolume works

If the resource you are citing is part of a larger work then it is important to make clear to the reader what part of the work to which your citations refers. You do this by specifying the section or volume:

  • Chapter's author
  • Year
  • Chapter's title followed by "In:"
  • The work's publisher
  • The work's title - in italics
  • Section, volume, etc.
  • Location of publication
  • Publisher
  • Pages


Selnes, F., & Sallis, J. (2003). Promoting relationship learning. In: Egan, J. & Harker, M.J. (eds.), Relationship marketing. Vol.3. Paradigm or perspective: The future of relationship marketing. London: SAGE Publications, pp. 277-304.

Newspaper article

References for newspaper articles should follow the format below:

  • Article's author
  • Publication year
  • Title
  • Newspaper's title - in italics
  • Date


Levander, M. (1999). Stress ger fler uppsägningar. Dagens Nyheter, July 21.

Oral sources

Oral citations, i.e. references for interviews, telephone conversations, lectures, e-mails etc. can also be included in your reference list. It's important to make clear in the text that this is unpublished material, which is why you must collect these sources in a separate reference list with a heading such as "Unpublished materials or "Oral materials"."

Some instructors discourage the inclusion of oral sources in a reference list since it isn't possible for the reader to go back to the source. An alternative is to provide the source in a footnote. Regardless of the manner in which you cite the source, it is always important to ask the person for permission to quote them.


References for pamphlets should be written as follows:

  • Author/Source, e.g. institution publishing the document
  • Publication year
  • Title - in italics
  • [Pamphlet] between brackets
  • Publisher's location
  • Publisher
  • Series - if applicable
  • The pamphlet's URL - Available at: should be written after the publisher's name.
  • [Date] when you read the pamphlet


Naturvårdsverket. (2015). Så bildas en nationalpark. [Pamphlet] Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket. Available at: [2015-07-08]


Pictures or photographs like figures have their description with captions directly underneath the image. Cite author and year underneath the image.

Sometimes there is a need to account for a number of images with references to other copyright holders. In these cases you can create an image list in your reference list. Keep in mind when re-using pictures and photographs created by others and not available under the Creative Commons-license that they are usually protected by copyright.
Read more about using others' images and how to write references

Public documents

"Public documents" refers to various documents and publications produced by the government, parliament, authorities, and municipalities. This can include minutes, motions, propositions, investigations, etc.

References for public documents should be written as follows:

  • Author/Source, e.g. institution publishing the document
  • Publication year
  • Title - in italics
  • Edition (if more than one)
  • Publisher's location
  • Publisher
  • Series


Djurtransportutredningen (2003). Kännande varelser eller okänsliga varor?. Stockholm: Fritzes. (Statens offentliga utredningar 2003:06).

Arbetsmarknadsutskottet (2003). Utgiftsområde 13 Arbetsmarknad. Stockholm: Sveriges Riksdag. (2002/2003:AU1).

Radio and TV programs

References to radio or TV programs are written as follows:

  • Program series - in italics
  • Year
  • Program title
  • Medium of broadcast
  • Who is responsible for the program
  • Date the program was broadcast


Sommar (2008). Dolph Lundgren. [Radio program]. Producer: Helena Groll. Sveriges Radio, P1 July 19.

Vetenskapens värld (2010). Världshavens försurning. [TV program]. Sveriges Television, SVT 2 March 15.

Reference work

References to reference works like encyclopaedias should be written as follows:

  • The author of the article in the work in question
  • Year
  • Entry word
  • The name of the reference work - in italics
  • (the volume)
  • pages / URL and [date]


Hagström, B. (1989-1996). Norska. In: Nationalencyklopedin. Vol. 14, pp. 285-287.

Hagström, B. (2001). Norska. I: Nationalencyklopedin. Available at: [2001-08-20].


References to reports are written as follows:

  • Author
  • Publication year
  • Title - in italics
  • Series if available
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Report number


Larsson, Å. (1998). Vindkraft i lokala och regionala nät: elektriska egenskaper och el-kvalitet. (Elforsk Rapport, 1998:20). Stockholm: Elforsk.

Reports available online - example:

Many reports are available online as PDF. For instance, reports published at SLU are collected in Epsilon. Such references should follow the format below:

Lundqvist, P. & Nilsson, U. (2012). Människan i ekologisk produktion – perspektiven år 2002. (Lantbruk, trädgård, jordbruk, Rapportserie 2012:11). Alnarp: Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet. Available at: [2012-05-18].

Student projects

References to student projects are written as follows::

  • Author
  • Publication year
  • Title - in italics
  • Name of University where the project was written
  • Name of Department/Institution where the project was written
  • Series


Carlsson, Y. & Engerström, M. (2010). Utvärdering av equivästens användbarhet som hjälpmedel i ryttarens sitsträning. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet. Hippologenheten/Hippologprogrammet (Fördjupningsarbete 2010: 392).

SOU - Swedish Government Official Reports

The Government sometimes works with issues requiring a thorough examination. Once the investigation is complete it is published in the series called SOU (Statens Offentliga utredningar).

Each SOU has a unique identification number consisting of a year and a sequential number, eg SOU 2012:22

  • Name of the investigation
  • Year
  • Title - in italics
  • SOU, year and number
  • Place of publication
  • Department


Rovdjursutredningen (2012). Mål för rovdjuren. (SOU 2012:22). Stockholm: Miljödepartementet.

Tables and figures

Each table should have a brief, explanatory title above the table. Figures have their title placed below the figure which ends with a full stop. Usually you do your own table or figure but if you re-use images they need acknowledgement of a source. Keep in mind that images are usually protected by copyright and must not be published without without permission from the author.

If you want to refer to a specific table or figure write the reference as usual, but in the text you also need to refer to the page in the document where to find the table / figure.

Following example is from a journal:

  • Writer
  • Year
  • Title
  • Journal's title - in italics
  • Volume and if possible number in parentheses
  • Page numbers


McConaghy, F. F., Hales, J. R., Rose, R.J and Hodgson, D.R. (1995). Selective brain cooling in the horse during exercise and environmental heat stress. J Appl Physiol,vol.79, ss. 1849-1854.

In the main text, it may then look as follows with a reference to a specific table from the article:

.....Figure 3 indicates differences of temperature (McConaghy, F. F., Hales, J. R., Rose, R.J and Hodgson, D.R. 1995, s. 1851)...

Unpublished works

Text before it is published or may not be able to provide full details.


Cambell, A.G. (1986) Media manipulation: the future for British government. (Unpublished). Thesis. (PhD). Tewkesbury University

Limberg, L. (2008) Bibliotek och lärande: en het kombination. (Unpublished). [2013-02-14].


References for videos, for example a Youtube video, should be written as follows:

  • Author
  • Year
  • Video's title - in italics
  • [Video]
  • Link to the video
  • [Date] when you viewed the video


Linnaeus University Library. (2007) Vad är en vetenskaplig artikel? (2007). [Video]. Available at: [2010-06-23].


When you use material you have found online it's important that you identify what it is exactly for a source. Is it a report? An article? A blog post? Or just a normal webpage? For example, if the source in question is a report from Sweden's National Food Administration you would follow the reference rules for other reports.

References for a typical webpage includes the following:

  • Author
  • Latest update
  • Site's title - in italics
  • URL or path (see example)
  • [Date] when you visited the site


Jordbruksverket (2014). Markavvattning och dagvatten. Available at:
4.7a446fa211f3c824a0e8000171076.html [2014-06-13]

Jordbruksverket (2014). Markavvattning och dagvatten.
Available at: Odling / Dränering och vatten
/ Markavvattning och dagvatten [2014-06-13]

Harvard is the most common referencesystem at SLU. This system is characterized by in-text citations that refer to a particular work by naming the source's last name and year of publication in parantheses (name, year). The concept is that readers should be able to easily locate the complete reference to the work cited in your reference list.

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