Forest Conservation And Management Essay

Here is an essay on ‘Forest Conservation’ for class 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Forest Conservation’ especially written for school and college students.

Essay on Forest Conservation

Essay Contents:

  1. Essay on the Introduction to Forest Conservation
  2. Essay on the Forest Conservation Movements in India
  3. Essay on the Methods of Forest Conservation
  4. Essay on National Forestry Action Programme for Forest Conservation
  5. Essay on Forest Conservation Initiatives Taken up by Indian Government

Essay # 1. Introduction to Forest Conservation:

Forests may provide a diversity of ecosystem services including recycling carbon dioxide into oxygen, acting as a carbon sink, aiding in regulating climate, purify water, mitigating natural hazards such as floods, and serving as a genetic reserve. Forests also serve as a source of lumber and as recreational areas.

Under the growing pressure of population in the developing countries and over industrialization, urbanization and consumerism in the developed countries, there is large scale deforestation in the tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world.


Factors Responsible for Deforestation:

(i) Rapid growth of population in the developing countries.

(ii) Extension of agricultural and grazing lands.

(iii) Rising demand for lumber, timber, paper, pulp, fuel-wood and charcoal, and other forest products.

(iv) Industrialization, urbanization and consumerism in the developed and developing countries.

(v) Demand of raw material for the forest-based and agro-based industries.

(vi) Demand of land for infrastructural (roads, highways, railways, airways, irrigation, electricity and telecommunication services) facilities and civic amenities.

(vii) Construction of multi-purpose dams all over the world.

(viii) Practice of shifting cultivation in the humid-tropical regions of the world.

(ix) Change in food habits

(x) High rate of poverty in the third world countries. It is said that poverty directly or indirectly leads to deforestation.

(xi) Forest fires (natural and manmade)

(xii) Acid rains

(xiii) Delayed administrative decision, and less effective implementation of forest laws, especially in the developing countries.

Consequences of Deforestation:

(i) Soil erosion,

(ii) Floods,

(iii) Desertification,

(iv) Loss of biodiversity,

(v) Decrease in forest products like fruits, nuts, medicinal plants, wood and timber,

(vi) Drying up of springs in the mountains,

(vii) Alteration in the rate of albedo

(viii) Spread of certain diseases because of global warming

(ix) Aesthetic loss

(x) Climatic change.

Essay # 2. Forest Conservation Movements in India:

Chipko Movement:

a. The Chipko movement or Chipko Andolan was primarily a forest conservation movement in India that began in 1973 and went on to become a rallying point for many future environmental contrast and movements all over the world; it created a precedent for non-violent protest started in India.

b. The movement occurred at a time when there was hardly any environmental movement in the developing world, and its success meant that the world immediately took notice of this non-violent movement, which was to inspire in time many such eco-groups by helping to slow down the rapid deforestation, expose vested interests, increase ecological awareness, and demonstrate the viability of people power.

Appiko Movement:

a. It was a revolutionary movement based on environmental conservation in India.

b. The Chipko movement (Hug the Trees Movement) in Uttarakhand in the Himalayas inspired the villagers of the Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka State in southern India to launch a similar movement to save their forests.

c. Lead by Panduranga Hegde, on September 1983, men, women and children of Salkani “hugged the trees” in Kalase forest. (The local term for “hugging” in Kannada is appiko.) Appiko movement gave birth to a new awareness all over southern India.

Essay # 3. Methods of Forest Conservation:

i. Regulated and Planned Cutting of Trees:

One of the main reasons of deforestation is commercial felling of trees. Although trees are considered as perennial resource, when exploited on a very large scale, their revival cannot be possible.

Adopting methods to regulate cutting:

(i) Clear cutting,

(ii) Selective cutting,

(iii) Shelter woodcutting.

The clear cutting method is useful for those areas where the same types of trees are available over a large area. In such case, trees of same age group are cut down in a selected area and then marked for replantation. But in selective cutting only mature trees are selected for cutting. This process is to be followed in rotation.

Shelter woodcutting is where first of all useless trees are cut down followed by medium and best quality timber trees.

In regulated cutting only one-tenth of the forest area is selected for use and rotational system is always followed for their protection. This technique is called the ‘sustained yield’ method.

ii. Control over Forest Fire:

Destruction or loss of forest by fire is fairly common; because trees are highly exposed to fire and once started it becomes difficult to control.

Sometimes, the fire starts by natural process, i.e., by lightning or by friction between trees during speedy winds, while in most cases it is also by man either intentionally or unintentionally. In order to save forests from fire, it is necessary to adopt latest techniques of firefighting and trained staff.

Some of the fire suppression techniques are to develop three metre wide fire lanes around the periphery of the fire, back fires, arrangement of water spray, fire retardant chemicals should be sprayed from back tank and if possible by helicopters.

iii. Reforestation and Afforestation:

The sustained yield concept dictates that whenever timber is removed, either by block cutting or by selective cutting, the denuded area must be reforested. Similarly, any forested land, which has been destroyed by fire or mining activities, should be reforested. In rugged terrain aerial seeding is the method of choice.

Besides all this, fresh afforestation programmes should be started. This would increase the forest cover as well help in making up the eco-balance. Selection of trees should be done according to local geographical conditions

iv. Forest Clearance for Agricultural & Habitation Purposes:

For the development of villages, towns and cities, forestlands have been cleared and this process continues to this day causing loss of forest cover. This should be checked and green belts around cities be developed.

Most of the present-day agricultural land was once forested and then cleared for the use of agriculture; it has reached a stage where further clearance will be dangerous for the entire ecosystem.

According to an estimate, about 40 million sq. km of land is used for shifting cultivation by 200 million tribals of the world.

v. Protection of Forests:

Apart from commercial cutting, unorganized grazing is also one of the reasons. There are several forest diseases resulting from parasitic fungi, rusts, mistletoes, viruses and nematodes, which cause the destruction of trees.

The forests should be protected either by use of chemical spray, antibiotics or by development of disease resistant strains of trees.

vi. Proper Utilization of Forest and Forests Products:

Generally, trees are cut for logs and the rest, including stump, limbs, branches and foliage, etc., is left out as worthless debris. Further waste occurs at the sawmills. Therefore there is a need to utilize this waste material.

Similarly, forests can be used or developed as tourist centres. The concepts of ‘national park’ and ‘game sanctuary’ have now become popular. This is a good method of forest conservation.

vii. Role of Government and Forest Management:

Implementation of the policies in an effective manner is the need of the hour.

(i) Pass acts for the conservation of forests,

(ii) Survey of the forest resources,

(iii) Categorization of forest areas and proper delimitation of reserved forest areas,

(iv) Find out the areas where reforestation can be done,

(v) Regulate the commercial use of forest products,

(vi) Protect forest from fire, mining and other natural calamities,

(vii) Develop national parks,

(viii) Encourage forests developmental activities like social forestry, agro-forestry, etc., and

(ix) Prepare master plans, both for long-term and short-term period, etc.

(x) Administrative setting for forest management,

(xi) Training programmes for persons engaged in forest conservation activities,

(xii) Development of new techniques for the conservation of forests,

(xiii) Research for efficient use and conservation of forest, and

In brief, conservation of forest resources can be done by cooperative efforts of the government, non-government organizations and the public through a proper management system.  

Essay # 4. National Forestry Action Programme for Forest Conservation:

The NFAP identified five interrelated basic issues confronting forestry development in India which form the basis of the following programme structures.

1. Protect Existing Forests Resources:

It has three main sub-programmes:

(i) Forest protection,

(ii) Soil and water conservation,

(iii) Protected areas and biodiversity conservation.

These include the works of forest survey, demarcation and mapping, inventory, biodiversity conservation, protected area management, protection against poaching, encroachment and fire, and other related issues.

2. Improve Forest Productivity:

It has four main sub-programmes:

(i) Rehabilitation of degraded forests,

(ii) Research and technology development,

(iii) Development of Non-wood forest products (NWFP’s)

(iv) Assisting private initiatives with community participation.

These mainly involve research, improvement in technology, enrichment planting, soil and water conservation, regeneration, rehabilitation, and afforestation, mainly in existing forests.

3. Reduce Total Demand:

It has three main sub-programmes for the efficient use of:

(i) Fuel wood and fodder,

(ii) Timber

(iii) NWFPs.

This includes programme for reduction of demand placed on forests through the technology of preservation, seasoning, substitutions, and other measures for the efficient utilization of forest products and also through biomass plantations.

4. Strengthen Policy and Institutional Framework:

It has three main sub-programmes:

(i) Central forestry administration,

(ii) Central forestry institutions,

(iii) State forestry administration and institutions.

These include the development of infrastructure such as buildings, communications, etc. and strengthening of staff including HRD. This issue also covers all aspects of capacity- building, forest policy and legislation, public forest administration and organizational structure, research, planning and budgeting.

5. Expand Forest Area:

It has two main sub-programmes:

(i) Tree plantation on forest and non-forest lands,

(ii) People’s participation in plantations and its protection.

This issue includes the extension of forestry programme in all kind of wastelands and marginal farmlands. It also includes the programme of certain of plantation forests through wasteland reclamation, afforestation, and promotion of agroforestry.

Essay # 5. Forest Conservation Initiatives Taken up by Indian Government:

Forestry is a concurrent subject in the Indian Constitution, being under the purview of both the central and state governments.

The first forest policy of India was enunciated in 1894 which focused on commercial exploitation of timber and gave importance to permanent cultivation. This was revised in 1952 and a new forest policy recognized the protective role of forests and proposed that one-third of the land area of the country be retained under forest and tree cover.

It was only in 1988 that a shift in policy occurred when the Government of India adopted the National Forest Policy (NFP), 1988, recognizing the rights of the people over forests.

The Government of India in 1992 with support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), prepared the National Forestry Action Programme (NFAP). It is a comprehensive work plan for sustainable development of forests in India.

Biological Diversity Act, 2002 for Forest Conservation:

The Biological Diversity Act, 2002, aims to protect the biological resources of the country, and thus, addresses forest ecology in its totality.

73rd Amendment to the Indian Constitution:

The 73rd Amendment to the Indian Constitution, 1992, makes it mandatory for all states to decentralize governance through a three-tier structure, viz. the state, district, and local bodies (called Panchayati Raj institutions).

Among the 29 functions recommended for decentralization, three relate to forestry, i.e. Social forestry, Fuel Wood Plantations, and Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP). Thus, the legal basis for effective people’s participation in forest protection and forest management is now available.

The Indian Council of Forestry Research & Education (ICFRE):

In order to strengthen the system of forestry research in India, the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), an autonomous umbrella organization, was established in 1986.

Its functions include aid to and promoting forestry research and its application, acting as a clearing house for research results and information, dissemination of technology, etc.

Research Institutions apart from ICFRE:

a. Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi

b. Madhya Pradesh Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur

c. Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute, Bangalore

Institutions dealing with Forest Conservation in India:

a. Indian Institute of-Forest Management, Bhopal

b. Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy, Dehradun

c. Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehradun

d. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun

e. State Forest Service Colleges, Dehradun, Burnihat, and Coimbatore

f. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata

g. Zoological Survey of India, Dehradun

h. Forest Survey of India, Dehradun

i. National Museum of Natural History, New Delhi

j. GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Almora

k. Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Coimbatore

l. Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi

m. Centre for Ecological Research and Training, Bangalore

A forest is basically a piece of land that encompasses large number of trees and various varieties of plants. These beautiful creations of nature serve as home for different species of animals.

A vast expanse covered with dense trees, shrubs, mosses and wide variety of plants is referred to as a forest. There are different types of forests around the world that are home for different varieties of flora and fauna. Here are essays on forest of varying lengths to help you with the topic whenever you required. You can chose any forest essay according to your need:

Essay on Forest

Forest Essay – 1 (200 words)

A forest is known as an intricate ecosystem that is densely covered with trees, shrubs, grasses and mosses. The trees and other plants that form a part of the forests create an environment that is healthy for the breeding several species of animals. These are thus a habitat for a large variety of wild animals and birds.

Different types of forests grow in different parts of the world. These are mainly divided into three categories – Rain Forests, Coniferous Forests and Deciduous Forests. Forests form an important part of the ecological system mainly because they aids majorly in biodiversity. A large number of birds and animals survive only because of the presence of forests.

However, unfortunately forests are being cut at a rapid speed to serve various purposes. The increase in the demand of various commodities derived from the trees that grow in different forests and the need to accommodate the growing population are among the major reasons for deforestation. It is important to realise that forests are essential for the survival of the mankind. Forests help in purifying the atmosphere, aid in climate control, act as natural watershed and are a source of livelihood for many people.

Forests must thus be preserved. Deforestation is a global issue and effective measures must be taken to control this issue.


Forest Essay – 2 (300 words)

Forest is generally referred to a vast area covered with different types of plants and trees. These are mostly a habitat for various wild animals and different species of birds. Forests are formed of different layers that have their own importance and functions.

Importance of Forests

Forests form an important part of the ecological system. The need to preserve forests and grow more trees is often stressed upon. Some of the top reasons to do so are as follows:

  1. Purification of Atmosphere

It is common knowledge that plants exhale oxygen and inhale carbon dioxide. They also absorb other greenhouse gases that are harmful for the atmosphere. Trees and forests thus help in purifying the air we breathe as well as the atmosphere as a whole.

  1. Climate Control

Trees and soils regulate the atmospheric temperatures through the process of evapotranspiration. This aids in stabilizing the climate. Forests keep the temperature cool. They also have the power to build their own microclimates. For instance, the Amazon creates atmospheric conditions that promote regular rainfall in the surrounding areas.

  1. Habitat for Animals and Birds

Forests serve as a home for numerous species of wild animals and birds. These are thus a great means to maintain biodiversity which is extremely essential for maintaining a healthy environment.

  1. Natural Watershed

The trees form a shade over the rivers and lakes running from the forest and keep them from drying.

  1. Source of Wood

Wood is used to build different pieces of furniture including tables, chairs and beds among other things. Forests serve as a source of different types of woods.

  1. Means of Livelihood

Millions of people around the world rely on the forests for their livelihood directly or indirectly. Around 10 million are directly employed for the conservation and management of forests.


Forests are thus important for the survival of the mankind. From the fresh air we breathe to the wood we require to build the bed we sleep on – Everything is derived from forests.

Forest Essay – 3 (400 words)

Forest is a huge expanse covered with trees. There are different types of forests across the world. These have been categorized based on their types of soil, trees and other species of flora and fauna. A large part of earth is covered with forests.

The Origin of the Term – Forest

The term forest comes from the Old French word fores meaning vast land mainly dominated by trees and plants. It was introduced in English as a term that referred to wild land that people explored for hunting. It may or may not be occupied by trees. If this was the case, some people claimed that the term forest was derived from the Medieval Latin word foresta that meant open wood. This term in Medieval Latin was specifically used to address the king’s royal hunting grounds.

Different Layers in a Forest

A forest is composed of different layers that play their part in holding the place together. These layers have been termed as the Forest Floor, Understory, Canopy and Emergent layer. Among these, the Emergent layer exists only in the tropical rain forests. Here is a closer look at each of these layers:

  1. Forest Floor

This layer comprises of decomposing leaves, dead plants, twigs and trees and animal droppings. The decaying of these things forms new soil and also provides the required nutrients to the plants.

  1. Understory

This layer is composed of shrubs, bushes and trees that are used to grow and live in canopy’s shade. It is known to be devoid of enough sunlight.

  1. Canopy

This is formed when a large number of branches, twigs and leaves of huge trees intertwine. These fully grown trees receive the maximum amount of sunlight and form a protective layer for the rest of the plants and trees in the forest. This is known to be the thickest layer. It restricts much of the rain from reaching the plants and trees it covers. Monkeys, frogs, sloths, snakes, lizards and different species of birds are known to live here.

  1. Emergent Layer

This layer, that forms a part of the tropical rain forest, is composed of scattered tree branches and leaves that layer up above the canopy. The tallest of trees reach this place and form a part of this layer.


Forests are an essential part of the environment. However, unfortunately the human beings are cutting trees blindly to serve different purposes thereby disturbing the ecological balance. The need to save trees and forests must be taken more seriously.

Forest Essay – 4 (500 words)

A forest is a vast land that encompasses a large number of trees, vines, shrubs and other varieties of plants. Forests also consist of mosses, fungi and algae. These are home for a wide variety of birds, reptiles, microorganisms, insects and animals. Forests maintain biodiversity on earth and are thus important for maintaining a healthy environment on the planet.

Types of Forests

Forests around the world have been classified into different categories. Here is a look at the various types of forests that form a part of the earth’s ecological system:

  1. Tropical Rainforests

These are extremely dense forests and majorly or entirely consist of evergreen trees that remain green all round the year. You can see lush greenery around however since these are covered with canopy and an emergent layer over the same, these are devoid of enough sunlight and are thus mostly dark and damp. They receive plenty of rainfall all round the year but still the temperature here is high as these are located near the equator. Numerous species of animals, birds and fishes breed here.

  1. Sub-Tropical Forests

These forests are situated at the north and south of tropical forests. These forests mostly experience drought like situation. The trees and plants here are adapted to sustain the summer drought.

  1. Deciduous Forests

These forests are mainly home for trees that lose their leaves each year. Deciduous forests mostly penetrate in regions that experience mild winters and warm yet moist summers. These can be found in different parts of the world including Europe, North America, New Zealand, Asia and Australia. Walnut, oak, maple, hickory and chestnut trees are mostly found here.

  1. Temperate Forests

Temperate forests see the growth of deciduous and coniferous evergreen trees. Located in North Eastern Asia, Eastern North America and Western and Eastern Europe, these forests receive enough rainfall.

  1. Montane Forests

These are known as the cloud forests. This is because these forests receive most of their downpour from the fog or mist that comes from the lowlands. These are mostly located in the tropical, sub tropical and temperate zones. These forests experience cold weather as well as intense sunlight. Conifers occupy large part of these forests.

  1. Plantation Forests

These are basically large farms that grow cash crops such as coffee, tea, sugarcane, oil palms, cotton and oil seeds. Plantation forests produce about 40% of the industrial wood. These are particularly known for producing sustainable timber and fibre.

  1. Mediterranean Forests

These forests are situated around the coasts of the Mediterranean, Chile, California and Western Australia. These have a mix of softwood and hardwood trees and almost all the trees here are evergreen.

  1. Coniferous Forests

These forests are found near the poles, mainly the northern hemisphere, and experience a cold and windy climate all through the year. They experience the growth of hardwood and conifer trees. The growth of pines, firs, hemlocks and spruces is a common sight here. The conifer trees are evergreen and well adapted to the drought like condition here.


Forests are a beautiful creation of nature. Different parts of our planet encompass different types of forests that are home for various plants and animals and a means of livelihood for numerous people.


Forest Essay – 5 (600 words)

A vast land covered with trees, plants and shrubs and mostly home for different species of wild animals is referred to as a forest. Forests are an essential part of the Earth’s ecological system. They help in maintaining the planet’s climate, purifies the atmosphere, protects the watersheds, are a natural habitat for the animals and a major source of wood that is used for the production of several products used in our day to day life.

India – Among the Countries with Largest Forest Cover

India is among the top ten forest-rich countries in the world with the others being Australia, Brazil, China, Canada, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Russian Federation, United States of America, Indonesia and Sudan. These countries along with India constitute around 67% of the total forest area in the world.

Arunachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra are among the states that have the largest forest cover in India.

Top Forests in India

India is known to encompass several lush green forests. Many of these have even been turned into tourists spots. People from far and wide visit these to experience the wilderness and enjoy the serenity they offer. Here is a look at some of the top forests in the country:

  1. Sundarbans, West Bengal

The Sundarban forests located in West Bengal top the list when it comes to the most alluring forests in the country. These are home to the white tiger which is a variant of the royal Bengal tiger.

  1. Gir Forest, Gujarat

Spread across an area of more than 1,412 sq km in Gujarat’s Junagadh district, the Gir forest is home for the Asiatic Lion.

  1. Jim Corbett, Uttarakhand

Established in the year 1936, this place is a delight for the wildlife lovers. This is one such forest in the country that is known to attract the maximum number of tourists from around the world.

  1. Ranthambore, Rajasthan

Ranthambore located near the town of Sawai Madhopur in the Indian state of Rajasthan is home to leopards, tigers and marsh crocodiles. It is also known for the Padam Talao Lake that grows abundance of water lilies.

  1. Khasi Forests, Meghalaya

This place in northeast India is known for its lush greenery. The Khasi forests receive high amount of rainfall and remains green all round the year.

Forestry in India

Forestry in India is a major rural industry. It is a means of livelihood for a large number of people. India is known to produce a vast range of processed forest products. These do not just include those made from wood but also substantial amount of non-wood products. Its non-wood products include essential oils, medicinal herbs, resins, flavours, fragrances and aroma chemicals, gums, latex, handicrafts, incense sticks and thatching materials.

The Problem of Deforestation

Deforestation is the process of clearing trees from a large part of the forest for purposes such as farming and construction of buildings. Trees are never re-planted on such a land.

Statistics reveal that around half of the forests around the world have been destroyed ever since the evolution of the industrial age. The number is likely to increase in the times to come as industrialists are continually using the forest lands for personal gain. Large number of trees is also cut for producing various goods made from wood and other components of the trees.

Deforestation has a negative impact on the environment. Some of the problems it causes are soil erosion, disruption of the water cycle, climate change and loss of biodiversity.


Forests are a boon for the mankind. India especially has been blessed with some of the most beautiful forests that are home for many rarer species of birds and animals. The importance of forests must be recognized and the government must take measures to control the issue of deforestation.

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